PECT Study Guide
Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA)
Test Design and Test Objectives
The test design below describes general testing information. The set of test objectives that follows is a detailed outline that explains the knowledge and skills that this test measures.
Computer-based test (CBT)
Three modules: Reading, Mathematics, and Writing
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|Reference Materials Provided
for this Test
Module 1 (Test Code 001)
0001 Determine the meanings of words and phrases used in a variety of texts.
- applying knowledge of word structure, context, and syntax to determine the meanings of words and phrases
- determining the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases
- determining the denotative and connotative meanings of words and phrases
- recognizing synonyms and antonyms for words and phrases
0002 Recognize purpose, main idea, and organization in a variety of texts.
- identifying the primary purpose of a paragraph or passage
- identifying the main idea of a paragraph or passage
- distinguishing between general statements and specific details
- recognizing organizational structures
- recognizing an accurate summary or outline of a paragraph or passage
0003 Analyze and evaluate ideas and information presented in a variety of texts.
- analyzing relationships between ideas (e.g., cause and effect, problem and solution, comparing and contrasting)
- distinguishing between statements of fact and expressions of opinion
- assessing the evidence and reasons used to support an idea or argument for their relevance, importance, and sufficiency
- evaluating the credibility, objectivity, and reliability of an author or the sources used by an author
0004 Make inferences from ideas and information presented in a variety of texts.
- identifying the author's tone, opinion, or point of view
- identifying the assumptions underlying an author's argument or ideas
- drawing conclusions from ideas and information presented in a paragraph or passage
- recognizing the implications of ideas and information presented in a paragraph or passage
Module 2 (Test Code 002)
0005 Understand numbers and the number system.
- demonstrating knowledge of real numbers and number operations
- demonstrating fluency in computation, including operations on decimals, percents, fractions, and exponents
- using number sense and different number representations (e.g., scientific notation) to solve mathematical and real-world problems
- demonstrating knowledge of place value and the relative magnitude of numbers
0006 Apply principles of algebra to expressions and equations.
- analyzing and extending a variety of patterns
- using the concepts of variable, equality, and equation to generate, interpret, and evaluate algebraic expressions based on verbal descriptions
- manipulating algebraic expressions and solving equations using a variety of techniques (e.g., performing operations, simplifying, factoring)
- applying algebraic principles to represent and solve word problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percents
0007 Apply principles of algebra to linear and nonlinear functions.
- translating between different representations (e.g., tables, verbal descriptions, equations, graphs) of linear and nonlinear functions
- relating the characteristics of a linear equation (e.g., slope, intercepts) to its graph
- selecting a linear equation that best models a real-world situation, and interpreting the slope and intercepts in the context of the problem
- selecting a nonlinear function that best models a real-world situation
- solving linear equations, systems of linear equations, and inequalities algebraically and graphically
0008 Understand measurement concepts and geometry principles.
- estimating and calculating measurements using metric, customary, and nonstandard units, unit conversions, and dimensional analysis in real-world situations
- applying formulas to calculate perimeter, circumference, length, area, surface area, volume, and angles for two- and three-dimensional figures in mathematical and real-world situations
- estimating and calculating measurements indirectly using the Pythagorean theorem, ratios, proportions, and the principles of similarity and congruence
- determining how the characteristics of geometric figures (e.g., area, volume) are affected by changes in their dimensions
- solving a variety of measurement problems (e.g., time, temperature, rates of change)
- analyzing polygons using attributes of sides, angles, and parallel and perpendicular lines
- applying geometric transformations (e.g., translations, reflections, rotations) to geometric figures and using the concepts of symmetry, similarity, and congruence to solve problems
- using coordinate geometry and algebraic methods (e.g., Pythagorean theorem) to analyze geometric figures and solve problems
0009 Demonstrate knowledge of data, statistics, and probability.
- using measures of central tendency (e.g., mean, median) and spread (e.g., range) to draw conclusions and make predictions from data
- selecting appropriate ways to display data and statistical information (e.g., tables, circle graphs, histograms)
- analyzing and drawing inferences from data presented in different formats (e.g., frequency distributions, percentiles, graphs)
- calculating probabilities for simple, compound, independent, dependent, and conditional events described in various ways (e.g., word problems, tree diagrams, Venn diagrams)
- demonstrating knowledge of counting principles and combinations and permutations
0010 Understand problem solving, reasoning, and mathematical communication.
- solving problems using a variety of methods (e.g., estimation, drawing a picture, working backward, using manipulatives)
- using mathematical reasoning to evaluate arguments (e.g., distinguishing between inductive and deductive reasoning, using counterexamples, evaluating informal proofs) and determining the reasonableness of solutions to problems (e.g., estimation)
- translating between verbal descriptions and mathematical language, notation, and symbols (e.g., function notation, set notation, order relations)
- identifying connections between mathematical concepts, other academic disciplines, and technology
Module 3 (Test Code 003)
0011 Understand effective writing.
- revising text to introduce and conclude ideas effectively
- revising text to coordinate and subordinate ideas effectively
- revising text to create or improve the parallel structure of words, phrases, or ideas
- revising text to achieve the effective placement and emphasis of important words, phrases, or ideas
0012 Understand clear, concise, and coherent writing.
- recognizing clear and concise position statements, topic sentences, and propositions
- revising text to achieve the logical development of a main idea (e.g., reorganizing sentences within a paragraph, selecting effective supporting details, using transitional words and phrases)
- revising text to achieve precise and appropriate language usage (e.g., replacing misused words and phrases; replacing vague expressions with concrete, specific language)
- revising text to eliminate wordiness, redundancy, and distracting or extraneous information
- revising text to eliminate misplaced or dangling modifiers, ambiguous or awkward pronoun references, and shifts in tense or mood
0013 Understand grammatical writing.
- applying knowledge of the standard use of nouns and pronouns
- applying knowledge of the standard use of verbs
- applying knowledge of the standard use of adjectives and adverbs
- applying knowledge of subject–verb agreement and pronoun–antecedent agreement
- applying knowledge of the construction of simple, compound, and complex sentences
0014 Understand writing mechanics and the conventions of Standard American English.
- applying knowledge of the rules of spelling and commonly misspelled words
- applying knowledge of the rules of capitalization and the standard use of capital letters
- applying knowledge of the rules of punctuation and the standard use of punctuation marks
0015 Demonstrate the ability to develop a focused, well-organized piece of analytical writing that is appropriate for a given audience and conforms to the conventions of Standard American English.
- taking a position on an issue or proposing a plan or policy
- focusing and unifying ideas through the use of a clear thesis statement and topic sentences
- organizing ideas through the use of various sentence and paragraph structures and effective transitional words and phrases
- developing and supporting ideas through the use of sound reasoning and effective evidence and examples
- using language and vocabulary that is clear, precise, and appropriate for a given audience and purpose
- using language that is grammatical and conforms to the conventions of Standard American English