PECT Study Guide
Preservice Academic Performance Assessment (PAPA)
Test Design and Test Objectives
The test design below describes general testing information. The set of test objectives that follows is a detailed outline that explains the knowledge and skills that this test measures.
Test Design
Format 
Computerbased test (CBT) Three modules: Reading, Mathematics, and Writing 

Number of Questions 

Time 
Examinees who take all three modules during a single test session will also have a 15minute break between each module. 
Reference Materials Provided
for this Test 

Test Objectives
Module 1
SUBAREA—READING
 0001 Determine the meanings of words and phrases used in a variety of texts.
For example: applying knowledge of word structure, context, and syntax to determine the meanings of words and phrases
 determining the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases
 determining the denotative and connotative meanings of words and phrases
 recognizing synonyms and antonyms for words and phrases
 0002 Recognize purpose, main idea, and organization in a variety of texts.
For example: identifying the primary purpose of a paragraph or passage
 identifying the main idea of a paragraph or passage
 distinguishing between general statements and specific details
 recognizing organizational structures
 recognizing an accurate summary or outline of a paragraph or passage
 0003 Analyze and evaluate ideas and information presented in a variety of
texts.
For example: analyzing relationships between ideas (e.g., cause and effect, problem and solution, comparing and contrasting)
 distinguishing between statements of fact and expressions of opinion
 assessing the evidence and reasons used to support an idea or argument for their relevance, importance, and sufficiency
 evaluating the credibility, objectivity, and reliability of an author or the sources used by an author
 0004 Make inferences from ideas and information presented in a variety of
texts.
For example: identifying the author's tone, opinion, or point of view
 identifying the assumptions underlying an author's argument or ideas
 drawing conclusions from ideas and information presented in a paragraph or passage
 recognizing the implications of ideas and information presented in a paragraph or passage
Module 2
SUBAREA—MATHEMATICS
 0005 Understand numbers and the number system.
For example: demonstrating knowledge of real numbers and number operations
 demonstrating fluency in computation, including operations on decimals, percents, fractions, and exponents
 using number sense and different number representations (e.g., scientific notation) to solve mathematical and realworld problems
 demonstrating knowledge of place value and the relative magnitude of numbers
 0006 Apply principles of algebra to expressions and equations.
For example: analyzing and extending a variety of patterns
 using the concepts of variable, equality, and equation to generate, interpret, and evaluate algebraic expressions based on verbal descriptions
 manipulating algebraic expressions and solving equations using a variety of techniques (e.g., performing operations, simplifying, factoring)
 applying algebraic principles to represent and solve word problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percents
 0007 Apply principles of algebra to linear and nonlinear functions.
For example: translating between different representations (e.g., tables, verbal descriptions, equations, graphs) of linear and nonlinear functions
 relating the characteristics of a linear equation (e.g., slope, intercepts) to its graph
 selecting a linear equation that best models a realworld situation, and interpreting the slope and intercepts in the context of the problem
 selecting a nonlinear function that best models a realworld situation
 solving linear equations, systems of linear equations, and inequalities algebraically and graphically
 0008 Understand measurement concepts and geometry principles.
For example: estimating and calculating measurements using metric, customary, and nonstandard units, unit conversions, and dimensional analysis in realworld situations
 applying formulas to calculate perimeter, circumference, length, area, surface area, volume, and angles for two and threedimensional figures in mathematical and realworld situations
 estimating and calculating measurements indirectly using the Pythagorean theorem, ratios, proportions, and the principles of similarity and congruence
 determining how the characteristics of geometric figures (e.g., area, volume) are affected by changes in their dimensions
 solving a variety of measurement problems (e.g., time, temperature, rates of change)
 analyzing polygons using attributes of sides, angles, and parallel and perpendicular lines
 applying geometric transformations (e.g., translations, reflections, rotations) to geometric figures and using the concepts of symmetry, similarity, and congruence to solve problems
 using coordinate geometry and algebraic methods (e.g., Pythagorean theorem) to analyze geometric figures and solve problems
 0009 Demonstrate knowledge of data, statistics, and probability.
For example: using measures of central tendency (e.g., mean, median) and spread (e.g., range) to draw conclusions and make predictions from data
 selecting appropriate ways to display data and statistical information (e.g., tables, circle graphs, histograms)
 analyzing and drawing inferences from data presented in different formats (e.g., frequency distributions, percentiles, graphs)
 calculating probabilities for simple, compound, independent, dependent, and conditional events described in various ways (e.g., word problems, tree diagrams, Venn diagrams)
 demonstrating knowledge of counting principles and combinations and permutations
 0010 Understand problem solving, reasoning, and mathematical communication.
For example: solving problems using a variety of methods (e.g., estimation, drawing a picture, working backward, using manipulatives)
 using mathematical reasoning to evaluate arguments (e.g., distinguishing between inductive and deductive reasoning, using counterexamples, evaluating informal proofs) and determining the reasonableness of solutions to problems (e.g., estimation)
 translating between verbal descriptions and mathematical language, notation, and symbols (e.g., function notation, set notation, order relations)
 identifying connections between mathematical concepts, other academic disciplines, and technology
Module 3
SUBAREA—WRITING
 0011 Understand effective writing.
For example: revising text to introduce and conclude ideas effectively
 revising text to coordinate and subordinate ideas effectively
 revising text to create or improve the parallel structure of words, phrases, or ideas
 revising text to achieve the effective placement and emphasis of important words, phrases, or ideas
 0012 Understand clear, concise, and coherent writing.
For example: recognizing clear and concise position statements, topic sentences, and propositions
 revising text to achieve the logical development of a main idea (e.g., reorganizing sentences within a paragraph, selecting effective supporting details, using transitional words and phrases)
 revising text to achieve precise and appropriate language usage (e.g., replacing misused words and phrases; replacing vague expressions with concrete, specific language)
 revising text to eliminate wordiness, redundancy, and distracting or extraneous information
 revising text to eliminate misplaced or dangling modifiers, ambiguous or awkward pronoun references, and shifts in tense or mood
 0013 Understand grammatical writing.
For example: applying knowledge of the standard use of nouns and pronouns
 applying knowledge of the standard use of verbs
 applying knowledge of the standard use of adjectives and adverbs
 applying knowledge of subject–verb agreement and pronoun–antecedent agreement
 applying knowledge of the construction of simple, compound, and complex sentences
 0014 Understand writing mechanics and the conventions of Standard American
English.
For example: applying knowledge of the rules of spelling and commonly misspelled words
 applying knowledge of the rules of capitalization and the standard use of capital letters
 applying knowledge of the rules of punctuation and the standard use of punctuation marks
 0015 Demonstrate the ability to develop a focused, wellorganized piece
of analytical writing that is appropriate for a given audience and conforms to the
conventions of Standard American English.
For example: taking a position on an issue or proposing a plan or policy
 focusing and unifying ideas through the use of a clear thesis statement and topic sentences
 organizing ideas through the use of various sentence and paragraph structures and effective transitional words and phrases
 developing and supporting ideas through the use of sound reasoning and effective evidence and examples
 using language and vocabulary that is clear, precise, and appropriate for a given audience and purpose
 using language that is grammatical and conforms to the conventions of Standard American English